The events of Sunday 21 November 1920 are well named. Within fifteen hours on that fateful day, 32 people died: in the morning, eleven British intelligence officers killed by Michael Collins’s ‘squad’ (plus two Auxiliaries and two civilians); in the afternoon, fourteen civilians killed by British forces at Croke Park (including player Michael Hogan of Tipperary); and that evening, in murky circumstances in Dublin Castle, two high-ranking IRA officers, Dick McKee and Peadar Clancy, and civilian Conor Clune.  Did these events mark a decisive turning point in the ongoing War of Independence?  How were they presented at the time?  How are they remembered today?  Listen to History Ireland editor, Tommy Graham, discuss these and related matters in a lively and unfettered discussion with Joe Connell Jnr, Dr Siobhán Doyle, Dr Brian Hanley and Professor Fearghal McGarry.

This Hedge School, in association with the GAA Museum, is supported by the Department of Tourism, Culture, Arts, Gaeltacht, Sport and Media under the Decade of Centenaries 2012-2023 initiative.

As the War of Independence raged in southern Ireland a different type and more deadly form of conflict erupted in the northeast, and in Belfast in particular. Should this be considered part of the overall Irish revolution? Or a separate and distinct conflict with its roots in the sectarian geography of city? What was the long-term effect on community relations and on the formation of Northern Ireland? Join History Ireland editor, Tommy Graham in discussion with Marie ColemanKieran GlennonBrian Hanley and Brian Walker.

This podcast is supported by the Department of Foreign Affairs Reconciliation Fund in association with the Linen Hall Library.


Founded in Thurles in 1884, the GAA has had a long association with Tipperary, an association intensified by the events of Bloody Sunday, 21 November 1920, when Crown forces attacked a Dublin vs Tipperary football match at Croke Park. Three of the fourteen victims were from Tipperary, including, famously, the only player killed on the day, Michael Hogan. Listen to History Ireland editor, Tommy Graham, in conversation with John FlanneryAogán Ó FearghailEnda O’Sullivan and Jayne Sutcliffe.

This podcast is produced in association with Tipperary County Council, supported by the Department of Tourism, Culture, Arts, Gaeltacht, Sport and Media under the Decade of Centenaries 2012-2023 initiative.

Commemorating Bloody Sunday in the Junior Cycle history classroom

In the early morning of Sunday 21 November 1920 units of Dublin’s IRA assassinated 11 suspected British intelligence agents; two Auxiliaries and two civilians were also killed. That afternoon Crown forces opened fire on the crowd at a Dublin vs Tipperary football match in Croke Park, killing 14 people. Later that evening senior IRA officers Peadar Clancy and Dick McKee, and civilian Conor Clune, were ‘shot while trying to escape’ from Dublin Castle. Collectively these killings became known as Bloody Sunday. To discuss these events, with particular relevance to history teachers, join History Ireland editor, Tommy Graham, in discussion with Donal FallonJohn GibneyLiz Gillis and Angela Hanratty.

The West’s awake!—Revolution in Roscommon 1916–1921

Roscommon was one of the first counties to reflect the ‘utter change’ of the post-1916 period, with the election of the first Sinn Féin-backed MP in February 1917. In less than two years that party would win a landslide victory in the general election of 1918, but that mandate for independence was ignored by the British, resulting in the War of Independence. How typical of that transformation was Roscommon and how did it fare in the War of Independence? Join History Ireland editor Tommy Graham in discussion with John BurkeBrian Hanley and May Moran.

Kevin Barry is one of the most popular, and certainly one of the most sung, of Irish ballads. But who was Kevin Barry? Why was he immortalised in song? And what has been the significance of the ballad tradition generally in the Irish Revolution and, indeed, of the Irish Revolution in the ballad tradition? Listen to History Ireland editor, Tommy Graham, in discussion with Liz GillisEunan O’HalpinPádraig Óg Ó Ruairc and Fintan Vallely.This Hedge School, supported by the Department of Tourism, Culture, Arts, Gaeltacht, Sport and Media under the Decade of Centenaries 2012-2023 initiative, was recorded via Zoom and is now available as a podcast 

Seat of Crown administration since the twelfth century, and still bearing the physical scars of the 1916 Rising, during the War of Independence Dublin was also GHQ of the IRA and the location of the underground Dáil administration. 

To find out how the conflict played out between the two sides join History Ireland editor, Tommy Graham, in discussion with Donal FallonJohn GibneyLiz Gillis and Padraig Yeates.

Available on www.historyireland.com/podcast-channel and or wherever you get your podcasts.

Supported by the National Library of Ireland as part of the Dublin Festival of History.

So said Winston Churchill in reference to the Irish Free State on hearing news of the destruction of the Public Records Office in the Four Courts in June 1922 at the outbreak of the Civil War. But in many respects, this also applies to Northern Ireland whose Public Records Office Northern Ireland (PRONI) didn’t open its doors until 1924. How did these two institutions overcome this initial setback and what has been their significance in state formation, archives and commemoration?  

Listen to Tommy Graham, editor of History Ireland, in discussion with Marie ColemanCatriona CroweRay Gillespie and Neil Johnston

This Hedge School is a part of a wider digital event hosted by the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, in conjunction with Beyond 2022.

Having considered the ‘global’ impact of the Irish revolution in the last podcast (Dev in America), this Hedge School zooms in on the ‘local’—the market town of Nenagh and the surrounding North Tipperary area during the revolutionary decade—but also sets events in the wider national context. 

Listen to Tommy Graham, editor of History Ireland, in discussion with Gerard DooleyJohn FlannerySeán Hogan and Caitlin White

PANELLISTS

Ger Dooley, originally from County Laois, has studied early twentieth-century North Tipperary and has published two books on the towns of Nenagh and Roscrea during that period. He is a programme manager in the Michael Smurfit Graduate School of Business in UCD.

John Flannery is a member of the Tipperary in the Decade of Revolution group and of the Tipperary GAA Bloody Sunday Commemoration Committee, and is a past president of the Ormond Historical Society.

Seán Hogan is also a member of the Tipperary in the Decade of Revolution group and the author of The Black and Tans in North Tipperary—policing, revolution and war 1913–1922 (Nenagh Guardian, 2013), widely regarded as a definitive account of events in North Tipperary. 

Caitlin White is studying for a Ph.D at Trinity College, Dublin, investigating how public history was used to promote various identities in the two Irish states after partition. She has a chapter on public history in Nenagh in the forthcoming The public in public history (Routledge, 2021).

This podcast is supported by Tipperary County Council and the Heritage Council as part of ‘Nenagh 800’.

While the War of Independence raged in Ireland, a parallel international diplomatic campaign for recognition and funding for the underground Irish Republic was being waged. Central to this was the tour of Eamon de Valera, ‘President of the Irish Republic’, to the United States from June 1919 to December 1920. To assess its success or otherwise listen to Tommy Graham, editor of History Ireland, in discussion with Michael DoorleyDarragh GannonMiriam Nyhan Grey, and David McCullagh.

The great voyages of discovery (Columbus, de Gama, etc.) shifted the centre of gravity of European maritime trade from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. Over the same period the conquest of Ireland was completed. By the eighteenth century, Ireland, for centuries on the periphery of Europe, found itself at the centre of this newly formed ‘Atlantic world’ as part of the British Empire.
 
Listen to Tommy Graham, editor of History Ireland, discuss the maritime and colonial legacies with Aoife Bhreatnach (Irish Garrison Towns), Claire Connolly (UCC), Lar Joye (Dublin Port) and David Murphy (Maynooth).
This podcast is supported by Dublin Port in association with the West Cork History Festival.

This podcast is part of the History Ireland Hedge School programme supported by the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht under the Decade of Centenaries 2012–2023 initiative.

Terence MacSwiney—martyrdom, civil resistance & the Irish Revolution On 25 October 1920, after 74 days on hunger strike, Terence MacSwiney, lord mayor of Cork, died in Brixton Prison. His death not only evoked huge sympathy within Ireland but was also a turning point in the mobilisation of Irish nationalism abroad. In addition, his martyrdom inspired anti-colonial struggles throughout the world, particularly in India. Listen to History Ireland editor Tommy Graham discuss these and related questions, in particular the relationship between passive, civil and physical resistance, with Dr John Borgonovo, Dr Sarah-Ann Buckley, Dr Kate O’Malleyand Dr Pádraig Yeates

Photo:
Terence MacSwiney on the day of his wedding to Muriel Murphy in Bromyard, Herefordshire, where he had been interned after the 1916 Rising prior to his release in June 1917. Standing (left to right) are sisters Mary and Annie, Capuchin friar Fr Augustine Hayden OFM, bridesmaid Geraldine O’Sullivan and best man Richard Mulcahy. (Cork Public Museum)

Why was it that Cork (county and city), which accounted for c. 10% of the country’s population, produced nearly 25% of those killed in the War of Independence? What role did its substantial (c. 10%) non-Catholic (mainly loyalist) population play? Did individual IRA commanders like Tom Barry make a difference and what was the significance of the engagements he led at Kilmichael and Crossbarry?  Listen to Tommy Graham, editor of History Ireland, discuss these and related questions with Andy BielenbergEve MorrisonPádraig Óg Ó Ruairc and Gerry WhiteThis podcast is supported by the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht under the Decade of Centenaries 2012–2023 initiative.

Historians have long contrasted the more nakedly sectarian conflict in Belfast (c. 500 deaths in 1920–2) with the conduct of the War of Independence elsewhere. With disturbances costing twenty lives in June 1920, Derry seemed to be heading the same way but never reached the same level of intensity. Why not? What was the relationship between the city and its rural hinterland, including Donegal? What role did the region’s substantial Hibernian element play? 

Listen to Tommy Graham, editor of History Ireland, discuss these, and related, questions with Liz GillisAdrian GrantBreandán Mac Suibhne and Brian Walker.

This podcast is supported by the Nerve Centre and Tower Museum’s Decade of Commemorations project, funded by the European Union’s Peace IV programme, managed by the Special EU Programme Body (SEUPB).

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On 28 June 1920, five men from C Company of the 1st Battalion of the Connaught Rangers led a mutiny in Jalandhar, Punjab, in protest against martial law in Ireland. Following their surrender a few days later, 88 mutineers were court-martialled, of whom 77 were imprisoned; the leader, James Daly, was executed. The imprisoned mutineers were released in 1923; they returned to Ireland, and in 1936 were granted State pensions. In 1970 the remains of James Daly and two other mutineers were repatriated from India.

Listen to Tommy Graham, editor of History Ireland, discuss the complex web of issues arising from these events and their commemoration both in 1970 and today with

John Gibney, Cécile Gordon, Brian Hanley and Kate O’Malley.

This podcast is part of the History Ireland Hedge School programme supported by the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht under the Decade of Centenaries 2012–2023 initiative.

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Born in Dublin’s Fishamble Street in 1746, but resident for most of his life in Tinnehinch, near Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow, Henry Grattan was the most noted, and certainly the most eloquent, of the eighteenth-century opposition ‘patriots’ in the Irish Parliament. He reached the height of his popularity with the concession of ‘legislative independence’ in 1782. Nineteenth-century constitutional nationalists would later refer to this, until its dissolution by the Act of Union in 1800, as ‘Grattan’s Parliament’, despite his almost permanent position on its opposition benches. In truth its ‘independence’ was a sham, and its inability to reform itself or grant Catholic Emancipation led to the polarisation of the 1790s and the bloody rebellion of 1798. By now a marginal figure, he spoke eloquently, but in vain, against the subsequent Act of Union. Less well known is his return to Parliament, this time in Westminster, in 1805, where he served until his death on 6 June 1820. To mark the bicentenary of his passing and to reassess his often misunderstood legacy, History Ireland editor Tommy Graham was joined, for an online Hedge School, by David DicksonPatrick Geoghegan, Sylvie Kleinman and Tim Murtagh.
6 June 2020

Supported by the Wicklow County Archives Service, Wicklow County Council, in association with the Bray Cualann Historical Society

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The general election of 8 February 2020 marked a seismic shift in Irish politics. The Fianna Fáil/Fine Gael duopoly, which had dominated for nearly a century, was shattered by a resurgent Sinn Féin, creating a novel tripartite division. To make sense of it all, and in particular to address any historical precedents, History Ireland editor, Tommy Graham, spoke with Brian Hanley, author of The Impact of the Troubles on the Republic of Ireland, 1968-79

Recorded 25 February 2020



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